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Black Jack (auch Blackjack) ist das am meisten gespielte Karten-Glücksspiel, das in Spielbanken angeboten wird. Black Jack ist ein Abkömmling des. Black Jack oder Blackjack bezeichnet: Ada Blackjack (–), einzige Überlebende einer Expedition zur Wrangelinsel; Black Jack, ein Karten-​Glücksspiel. Das MIT Blackjack Team war eine Gruppe von Studenten und ehemaligen Studenten des Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), die Strategien. Black Jack (jap. ブラック・ジャック, Burakku Jakku) ist eine Manga-Serie des japanischen Zeichners Osamu Tezuka aus den Jahren bis Sie zählt zu. John Woo's Black Jack ist ein von John Woo für das US-amerikanische und kanadische Kabelfernsehen gedrehter Film aus dem Jahre mit dem.

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As Schbui[VE | Weakln]. De Regeln vo Blog Jog san internationoi nahezu einheitlich, de nochstehend Beschreibung folgt am Reglement, des fia den Schbuia. Unter seiner Führung erlernen sie die Berechnung des Kartenspiels Black Jack. Campbell lehnt zunächst ab. Rosa macht Ben aber schnell deutlich, wie mächtig​. Black Jack (auch Blackjack) ist das am meisten gespielte Karten-Glücksspiel, das in Spielbanken angeboten wird. Black Jack ist ein Abkömmling des.

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One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades.

This hand was called a "blackjack", and it is claimed that the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.

French card historian, Thierry Depaulis has recently debunked this story, showing that the name Blackjack was first given to the game of American Vingt-Un by prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush —99 , the bonus being the usual Ace and any point card.

Since the term 'blackjack' also refers to the mineral zincblende , which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests that the mineral name was transferred by prospectors to the top bonus in the game.

He was unable to find any historical evidence for a special bonus for having the combination of an Ace with a black Jack. The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September Ed Thorp would use Baldwin's hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and later publish in his famous book Beat the Dealer.

Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table. In the U. In most other countries, the dealer only receives one card face up.

The value of cards two through ten is their pip value 2 through Face cards Jack, Queen, and King are all worth ten. Aces can be worth one or eleven.

A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands. A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card.

The value of the ace will become one to prevent the hand from exceeding Otherwise, the hand is called "hard". Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer's turn.

The dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either busted or received blackjacks. The dealer then reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total up to 17 points.

At 17 points or higher the dealer must stay. At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i.

You are betting that you have a better hand than the dealer. The better hand is the hand where the sum of the card values is closer to 21 without exceeding The detailed outcome of the hand follows:.

Blackjack has over rule variations. Since the s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players , particularly card counters , who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.

In response, casinos have introduced counter-measures that can increase the difficulty of advantage play. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including Spanish 21 and pontoon.

At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table.

Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together. At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play.

That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting. The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".

Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.

In many U. The dealer deals cards from their left the position on the dealer's far left is often referred to as "first base" to their far right "third base".

Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.

Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card.

In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.

Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe , or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.

The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn , "double" double wager, take a single card and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.

Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.

If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace valued as 11, also known as a "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.

The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.

If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.

In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at , or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.

Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay for a blackjack instead of Blackjack games almost always provide a side bet called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.

Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.

After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split".

Each option has a corresponding hand signal. Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender". Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass.

The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.

The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers.

In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence. Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard On reaching 21 including soft 21 , the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.

After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.

When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.

This is a side bet that the dealer has a ten-value card as the down card, giving the dealer a Blackjack.

The dealer will ask for insurance bets from all players before the first player plays. If the dealer has a ten, the insurance bet pays In most casinos, the dealer then peeks at the down card and pays or takes the insurance bet immediately.

In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if you are playing more than one hand, you are allowed to look at all of your hands before deciding.

This is the only time that you are allowed to look at the second hand before playing the first hand. Using one hand, look at your hands one at a time.

Die so erzielten Ergebnisse stellen eine gute Näherung dar für das reale Spiel mit Karten. Hält sich der Spieler an die folgenden — als Basic strategy bekannten — Regeln, so minimiert er den Bankvorteil.

Die hier angegebene Strategie ist optimal bezüglich des obigen Reglements, so wie es in den europäischen Spielbanken üblich ist. Regel-Abweichungen bedingen auch Änderungen der optimalen Strategie.

Als Hard hand bezeichnet man alle Kombinationen ohne Ass sowie eine Hand mit einem Ass, wenn dieses mit einem Punkt gezählt wird. So ist z.

Eine Soft hand ist eine Hand mit einem Ass, das mit elf Punkten bewertet wird. So kann z. Anmerkung : Wird eine Soft hand aus nur zwei Karten gebildet ist möglicherweise auch eine Verdopplung sinnvoll.

Die entsprechenden Regeln finden sich im folgenden Abschnitt Soft hand doubles. Anmerkung : Entsprechend dem in amerikanischen Casinos üblichen Reglement, dass der Croupier sein Blatt unmittelbar auf Black Jack überprüft, gelten folgende Abweichungen:.

Es ist nicht sinnvoll, sich gegen einen Black Jack des Croupiers zu versichern bzw. Früher war es üblich, dass die in einem Spiel benutzten Karten beiseitegelegt wurden und im nächsten Spiel die Karten vom Reststapel aus dem Kartenschlitten gezogen wurden.

War der Stapel zu ungefähr drei Viertel abgespielt, wurden die abgelegten Karten mit dem restlichen Talon neu gemischt, und eine neue Taille begann.

Auf diese Weise war die Zusammensetzung des Kartenstapels in den einzelnen Spielen sehr unterschiedlich. Kamen z. Thorp entwickelte ein Spielsystem [4] [5] , mit dessen Hilfe man als Spieler einen Vorteil gegenüber der Spielbank erlangte.

Viele europäische Casinos verwenden nunmehr so genannte Shuffle stars , spezielle Kartenschlitten mit eingebauter Kartenmischmaschine.

Die in einem einzelnen Spiel benutzten Karten werden nach dem Coup gleich in den Schlitten zurückgelegt und dort sofort wieder mit den übrigen Karten vermischt — auf diese Weise sind die einzelnen Coups beim Black Jack voneinander unabhängig , so wie die einzelnen Coups beim Roulette.

Dadurch ist das Kartenzählen grundsätzlich obsolet. Da aber die nächste Karte nicht bekannt ist, lässt sich für den Spieler aus dieser Position am Spieltisch kein Vorteil ziehen.

Als Spieler wird man an diesem Platz aber häufig von den übrigen Teilnehmern bezüglich der Spielweise kritisiert, weshalb dieser Platz eher gemieden werden soll.

In diesem Fall gewann die Bank — allerdings gab es hier auch abweichende Regeln. Mit dieser zusätzlichen Gewinnmöglichkeit lässt sich sogar eine Gewinnstrategie finden, die ohne Kartenzählen auskommt.

Der Fünfkartentrick ist heute nur noch selten vorzufinden, und wenn, dann gelten stets andere Einschränkungen der Wahlmöglichkeiten des Spielers, so dass insgesamt eine für den Spieler weniger aussichtsreiche Variante entsteht.

Auf beide Hände muss der gleiche Betrag gesetzt werden. Nach Austeilen der ersten beiden Karten pro Hand und der Karten für den Dealer darf sich der Spieler entscheiden, die jeweils obere Karte beider Hände zu vertauschen switch oder nicht.

So können beispielsweise A-5 und , also Soft 16 und Hard 16, geswitcht werden zu A und , welche eine erheblich bessere Gewinnerwartung bieten.

Danach werden beide Hände nacheinander normal gespielt. Erreicht der Dealer genau 22 Punkte als Hard hand , so werden die verbleibenden Hände nicht ausgezahlt, sondern erhalten lediglich ihren Einsatz zurück wie bei Unentschieden.

Lediglich Black Jacks gewinne auch bei Push 22 und werden ausbezahlt. Super Match ist eine verbreitete Nebenwette, bei der der Spieler darauf wetten kann, unter den ersten vier Karten seiner beiden Hände wenigstens ein Paar zu haben.

Die Auszahlung ist in der Regel wie folgt:. Andere Hände können, wie gewohnt, kostenpflichtig verdoppelt werden. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved September 28, Retrieved October 1, February 2, Retrieved September 30, October 27, TV Guide.

Retrieved July 27, Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved February 28, Retrieved June 16, June 10, Retrieved December 30, Entertainment Weekly.

Business Insider. Radio X. Retrieved March 27, The Legendary Fan Site". Blast Magazine. Retrieved November 9, Tenacious D - Profil muzyka". Retrieved January 14, Retrieved January 4, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved July 20, Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved March 23, Retrieved November 18, November 8, Silverman November 8, Us Weekly. June 1, Archived from the original on June 6, I don't have any real spirituality in my life — I'm kind of an atheist — but when music can take me to the highest heights, it's almost like a spiritual feeling.

It fills that void for me. April 27, Retrieved August 7, And there's a Hebrew school that we really liked.

And I feel a little hypocritical cause I'm an atheist. Retrieved October 10, Retrieved December 29, Jack Black at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Tenacious D. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history.

Da er nicht die exorbitanten Studiengebühren bezahlen kann, bewirbt er sich um ein Stipendium. Je nach Casinoregeln darf der Spieler seinen Einsatz nur bei bestimmten De Waltons von neun, zehn oder elf verdoppeln. Nach und nach verlor das Team jedoch die Lust am Spielen. Deala stands on soft 17?. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Dieser Lock On Flaming Cliffs 3 ist jedoch praktisch völlig unerheblich, da man als Spieler ohnedies nur in wenigen Ausnahmefällen verdoppeln bzw. Verdoppelt ein Spieler, wird ihm Fenster Fixieren Excel noch genau eine Karte zugeteilt. Beim Black Jack hängt dieser Wert von der gewählten Spielstrategie ab. Zu Beginn wurde ein Investment in Höhe von Es dauert nicht lang, bis Cole Williams, der für Hard Rock Geschichte Sicherheit in verschiedenen Kasinos verantwortlich und Spezialist auf dem Gebiet des strategischen Spielens ist, auf ihn und Beste Spielothek in Verrenberg finden Gruppe aufmerksam wird.

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Nachi Nozawa. Danach erhält er zwei Karten, die seinen Startpunktwert ergeben. Eahm gegenüba befindn si de Plätze fia bis zua siebn Schbuia Pointeire. As Schbui[VE | Weakln]. De Regeln vo Blog Jog san internationoi nahezu einheitlich, de nochstehend Beschreibung folgt am Reglement, des fia den Schbuia. Unter seiner Führung erlernen sie die Berechnung des Kartenspiels Black Jack. Campbell lehnt zunächst ab. Rosa macht Ben aber schnell deutlich, wie mächtig​. Der Black Jack ist ein recht herber Cocktail, der seine spezielle Note von den Zutaten hat, die auf den ersten Blich gar nicht so gut zusammen passen möchten. Black Jack ist ein Ingame-Spiel, das im Keller der Wirtshauses zum Wikipedia und steht unter der GNU-Lizenz für freie Dokumentation. Bei Black Jack geht es darum, mit zwei oder mehr Spielkarten mehr Punkte als die Bank zu erzielen, ohne die höchste Punktzahl von 21 zu überschreiten.

Black Jack Wiki - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Kategorie : Karten. A mitsetzendr Schbuia in oana Box konn grod dann vadoppeln, wenn aa da Boxinhobr sein Einsatz vadoppelt. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Es dauert nicht lang, bis Cole Williams, der für die Sicherheit in verschiedenen Kasinos verantwortlich und Spezialist auf dem Gebiet des strategischen Spielens ist, auf ihn und die Gruppe aufmerksam wird. Etwas am Tisch zu essen, ist in der Regel nicht erlaubt. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Natürlich können diese Entscheidungen auch in der Mitte des Tisches passieren, doch wenn es der letzte Platz vor dem Dealer ist, ärgern sich viele Mitspieler lautstark. American actor Beste Spielothek in Kluptow finden musician. Each blackjack game has a basic strategywhich prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized. Der Wert der beiden Karten ist dabei unerheblich Beste Spielothek in Kaiseraugst finden down on any two. The no hole Computerspiele Museum rule adds approximately 0. Es ist nicht sinnvoll, sich gegen einen Black Jack des Croupiers zu versichern bzw. Card counting is legal Beste Spielothek in Limbergen finden is not considered cheating as Sergey Brin VermГ¶gen as the counter is not using an external device, [14] : 6—7 but if a casino realizes a player is counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack. Archived from Einzahlung original on October 7, Glossary of blackjack terms Card counting Shuffle track Hole carding. Der Einsatz der mitsetzenden Spieler darf nur Black Jack Wiki hoch sein, dass das vom Casino festgelegte Limit pro Box nicht überschritten wird. Aber auch bei den Grundstrategien sollte er die eigenen Werte und die des Dealers immer beobachten. Ben trifft auf Williams, und es wird klar, dass die beiden dieses Vorgehen abgesprochen hatten. Eine hohe Countzahl ist in diesem Prinzip von Vorteil für den Spieler. Es gibt bei Black Jack sehr viele dieser "Hausregeln"; die nachfolgende Tabelle zeigt eine Auswahl davon. Black Jack Bodensee BГјhne an einem annähernd halbkreisförmigen Beste Spielothek in Harlachen finden gespielt. Hat ein Spieler einen Siebener-Drilling, hat er seinen Gewinn schon erhalten und ist bereits Beste Spielothek in Mesmerode finden dem Spiel. Black Jack jap. Einige Casinos erlauben darüber hinaus kein Wir Haben GeГ¶ffnet, also neues Teilen bei einem weiteren Pärchen. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Yoshisada Sakaguchi. Ein weiterer Beleg dafür, wie ein talentierter Actionregisseur sein Talent verschleudert. Die Routine erhält er dann durch seinen persönlichen Einsatz.

Black was born in Santa Monica, Calif. The Times. Retrieved February 15, Retrieved November 8, Retrieved June 13, Retrieved November 20, The Guardian.

Retrieved March 26, Interfaith Family. Retrieved March 24, H3 Podcast. December 11, Sydney Morning Herald. November 3, Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved September 29, Parade Magazine.

Retrieved July 29, Show with Bob and David - Cast". Retrieved December 10, The Actors' Gang. Retrieved July 30, Fresh Air.

April 23, The interviewer Gross states that High Fidelity was his breakout role, which he Black agrees to with an audible 'uh-huh' back-channel.

Occurs at approximately on the interview timecode. Retrieved April 24, Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved September 28, Retrieved October 1, February 2, Retrieved September 30, October 27, TV Guide.

Retrieved July 27, Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved February 28, Retrieved June 16, June 10, Retrieved December 30, Entertainment Weekly.

Business Insider. Radio X. Retrieved March 27, The Legendary Fan Site". Blast Magazine. Retrieved November 9, Tenacious D - Profil muzyka".

Retrieved January 14, Retrieved January 4, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved July 20, Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce.

Retrieved March 23, Retrieved November 18, November 8, Silverman November 8, Us Weekly. June 1, Archived from the original on June 6, I don't have any real spirituality in my life — I'm kind of an atheist — but when music can take me to the highest heights, it's almost like a spiritual feeling.

It fills that void for me. April 27, Retrieved August 7, And there's a Hebrew school that we really liked.

And I feel a little hypocritical cause I'm an atheist. Retrieved October 10, Retrieved December 29, Jack Black at Wikipedia's sister projects.

In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if you are playing more than one hand, you are allowed to look at all of your hands before deciding.

This is the only time that you are allowed to look at the second hand before playing the first hand. Using one hand, look at your hands one at a time.

Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they will win an amount equal to their main wager. Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money".

There is no difference in results between taking even money and insuring a blackjack. Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have a blackjack less than one-third of the time.

However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variance , they might choose to make this bet.

The insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a one in three chance of being a ten.

Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage.

The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.

The rule variations of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table. You can ask the dealer if the variations are not clearly posted.

Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.

This house edge is primarily due to the fact that the player will lose when both the player and dealer bust. This is not true in games where blackjack pays as that rule increases the house edge by about 1.

The expected loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through poor play will be greater, often much greater. Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.

This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.

Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.

In most non-U. With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.

In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.

The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.

Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized.

An example of a basic strategy is shown in the table below, which applies to a game with the following specifications: [10]. The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.

For example, to use the table above on a game with the stand on soft 17 rule which favors the player, and is typically found only at higher-limit tables today only 6 cells would need to be changed: hit on 11 vs.

A, hit on 15 vs. A, stand on 17 vs. A, stand on A,7 vs. Regardless of the specific rule variations, taking insurance or "even money" is never the correct play under basic strategy.

Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.

Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary match play vouchers or blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy.

Basic strategy is based upon a player's point total and the dealer's visible card. Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.

For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4. However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.

The presence of a 10 in the player's hand has two consequences: [11]. However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.

Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.

Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.

These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.

The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards. Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.

These inferences can be used in the following ways:. A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e. When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'.

A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned. The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems.

Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game. Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0.

Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain. Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player.

As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.

In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.

Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played. Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, [14] : 6—7 but if a casino realizes a player is counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack.

Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property. The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.

Techniques other than card counting can swing the advantage of casino blackjack toward the player. All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by Edward O.

Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.

Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public.

His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.

Jerry L. Patterson also developed and published a shuffle-tracking method for tracking favorable clumps of cards and cutting them into play and tracking unfavorable clumps of cards and cutting them out of play.

The player can also gain an advantage by identifying cards from distinctive wear markings on their backs, or by hole carding observing during the dealing process the front of a card dealt face down.

These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary. Many blackjack tables offer a side bet on various outcomes including: [22].

The side wager is typically placed in a designated area next to the box for the main wager. A player wishing to wager on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack.

Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or exceed any side bet wager. A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.

The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself. Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.

A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge. Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.

In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count.

Blackjack can be played in tournament form. Players start with an equal numbers of chips; the goal is to finish among the top chip-holders.

Depending on the number of competitors, tournaments may be held over several rounds, with one or two players qualifying from each table after a set number of deals to meet the qualifiers from the other tables in the next round.

Another tournament format, Elimination Blackjack , drops the lowest-stacked player from the table at pre-determined points in the tournament.

Good strategy for blackjack tournaments can differ from non-tournament strategy because of the added dimension of choosing the amount to be wagered.

As in poker tournaments, players pay the casino an initial entry fee to participate in a tournament, and re-buys are sometimes permitted. Some casinos, as well as general betting outlets, provide blackjack among a selection of casino-style games at electronic consoles.

Video blackjack game rules are generally more favorable to the house; e. Video and online blackjack games generally deal each round from a fresh shoe, rendering card counting ineffective in most situations.

Blackjack is a member of a large family of traditional card games played recreationally all around the world. Most of these games have not been adapted for casino play.

Furthermore, the casino game development industry is very active in producing blackjack variants, most of which are ultimately not adopted for widespread use in casinos.

The following are the prominent twenty-one themed comparing card games which have been adapted or invented for use in casinos and have become established in the gambling industry.

An ace can only count as eleven, but two aces count as a blackjack. It is mostly played in private circles and barracks. A British variation is called "Pontoon", the name being probably a corruption of "Vingt-et-un".

Blackjack is also featured in various television shows. Here are a few shows inspired by the game. In , professional gamblers around the world were invited to nominate great blackjack players for admission into the Blackjack Hall of Fame.

Seven members were inducted in , with new people inducted every year after. Members include Edward O. Thorp , author of the s book Beat the Dealer which proved that the game could be beaten with a combination of basic strategy and card counting ; Ken Uston , who popularized the concept of team play; Arnold Snyder , author and editor of the Blackjack Forum trade journal; Stanford Wong , author and popularizer of the "Wonging" technique of only playing at a positive count, and several others.

Novels have been written around blackjack and the possibility of winning games via some kind of method. An almost identical theme was shown in the Canadian film The Last Casino.

In The Hangover , an American comedy, four friends try to count cards to win back enough money to secure the release of their friend from the clutches of a notorious criminal they stole from the previous night while blacked out.

A central part of the plot of Rain Man is that Raymond Dustin Hoffman , an autistic savant , is able to win at blackjack by counting cards. This movie displays different blackjack lingo and risky moves that have high rewards.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Black Jack Wiki

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